Saturday, December 17, 2011


Im back after a long hiatus.Will keep you posted regularly from now on.Bye for now.

Tuesday, March 1, 2011


Pre-scientific management era refers to the period immediately preceding the Scientific Management Movement started by F.W. Taylor and his associates. During the pre-scientific management era, many pioneers made significant contributions to management thought. Prominent among them were Robert Owen, Charles Babbage, Henry Vemun Poor, Henry Robinson Towne, James Watt, Mathew Boulton
3.1.1. Robert Owen (1771-1858)
Robert Owen managed a group of textile mills in Lanark (Scotland) during 1800-1828. He carried out experiments and introduced many social reforms. He believed that workers' performance was influenced by the total environment in which they worked. He said employees are vital machines. Their maintenance was as necessary as that of inanimate machines. He believed that workers should work because they want to work and not because they have to work. Throughout his life, Owen worked for the building up of a spirit of co-operation between the workers and the management. He believed and practised the idea that workers should be treated as human beings. Owen suggested that investment in human resources was more profitable than investment in machinery and other physical resources. He introduced new ideas of human relations, e.g., shorter working hours, housing facilities, education of children, provision of canteen, rest pauses, training of workers in hygiene, etc. He suggested that proper treatment of workers pays dividends

Tuesday, February 1, 2011


Management has been practised in some form or the other since the dawn of civilisation. Ever since human beings began to live and work together in groups, techniques of organisation and management were evolved. The Summerian Civilization dating back to 300 B.C. had an efficient system of tax collection. The pyramids of Egypt, the Chinese Civil Service, the Roman Catholic Church, and military organisation offer good examples of the application of management in ancient times. Kautilya's Arthashastra, the Bhagwat Gita, the Holy Bible and other epics contain references to the management of public affairs.
The early contributions to management thought came from Roman Catholic Church, military organisations and Cameralists. The principles of hierarchy of authority, territorial organisation, functional specialisation, etc. developed in the Roman Catholic Church. Military organisations contributed division of work, secular principle and staff concept. The Cameralists were a group of Austrian and German public administrators and intellectuals from sixteen to eighteen centuries. They stressed systematic administration of the State affairs. They formulated the principle of functional specialisation, proper selection and training of administrators, work simplification, effective control, etc.
Thus, the art of management has ancient origins. However, the science of management developed largely after the Industrial Revolution which established the factory system. Scienfitic management movement laid the foundations of management as a science. Prior to this movement several early pioneers like Robert Owen, Charles Babbage, Henry R. Towne, Henry V. Poor, James Watt Jr., Matthew R. Boulton and Charles Dupin made significant contributions during the pre-scientific management era.

Monday, January 10, 2011


The responsibilities of a supervisor are quite onerous. He is expected: 1. To schedule work so as to ensure an even and steady flow; 2. To assign work to different individuals according to their abilities; 3. To provide proper working conditions, materials, tools and other facilities
to workers; 4. To issue orders and instructions to the subordinates; 5. To prescribe work methods and procedures;
6. To guide, train and inspire workers in the efficient performance of work
7. To enforce rules and regulations so as to maintain discipline;
8. To communicate managerial policies and decisions to workers;
9. To convey worker's suggestion and grievances to management; and
10. To review quantity and quality of performance and to take corrective action, if necessary.

Saturday, January 8, 2011


Supervision is an important element of directing function of management. Managers at all levels perform the supervisory function. It is not the responsibility of first line supervisors only. At the top level of an organisation, the proportion of direct supervision is comparatively less than at middle and operating levels level managers supervise the work of departmental heads who in turn supervise operating executives. At each level, supervision is required to translate plans and programmes into action. At the lowest level managers have the primary duty for supervision and, therefore, they are known as supervisors
Supervision means overseeing the subordinates at work to ensure that they are working according to plans and policies of the organisation. It involves direct face-to-face contact between the supervisor and his subordinates. The aim of supervision is to ensure that subordinates work efficiently and effectively to accomplish the organisational objectives. It involves inter-personal relationship in day-to-day work. A supervisor is known by different names, e.g., foreman, overseer, superintendent, section officer, etc He constitutes the lowest rung of the management ladder and is in charge of workers. But the first-line supervisor occupies a strategic position in the hierarchy of an organisation. Supervisor is the vital link between workers and management. He is representative of management and a key figure from the viewpoint of workers. He is directly responsible for issuing orders and instructions, laying down work methods and procedures and initiating action. He gets the managerial plans translated into action, spots deviations from plans and takes the necessary corrective action. He is primarily responsible for the successful performance of work on the operating level. The position of a supervisor is very critical. He is known as the 'man in the middle' because he represents both management and workers

Wednesday, January 5, 2011


Communication is characterised by the following salient features:
1. Communication is essentially a two-way process, involving a sender and a receiver. One person alone cannot communicate. There is no communication until the message is received and understood by the receiver. It takes two to complete communication.
2. The message should be interpreted by the receiver in the same sense as intended by the sender. The basic purpose of communication is to create mutual understanding. Therefore, communication is complete only when the message is correctly understood and the response to it becomes known to the sender.
3. The message must have substance. It should contain information or ideas which are of interest to the receiver. It is meaningless to talk about book to a person who cannot read.
4. Communication is a pervasive function. It is used by managers at all levels of organisation and in all areas of operations.
5. Communication is an on-going process. There must be continuous inter¬change of messages between people working together in a group.
6. Communication does not mean mere oral or written messages. It includes
7. Speaking, writing, acting and listening, reading, observing or watching are
the fundamental aspects of communication

Tuesday, January 4, 2011


The word 'communication' has been derived from the Latin word 'communis' which implies common. Thus, communication may be defined as interchange of thought and information to bring about mutual understanding. It involves exchange or sharing of ideas, opinions and facts between two or more persons. It is the process of conveying written, verbal or gestural messages from one person to another so that they are understood. According to Theo Haimann, "Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another.... It is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by other."